Introduction / Background
Various irrigants at different concentrations and irrigation times have been tested with the purpose of improving the removing of smear layer, the combinations between chelating agents such as Ethylene Diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite(NaOCl) being outstanding6. Root canal irrigants are used alone or in combinations, during biomechanical preparation7.Ideal irrigant should be strongly antimicrobial, tissue solvent, but not toxic to the peri-apical tissues if extruded through the apex8. The effectiveness of irrigant has been shown to depend on concentration and time of exposure. NaOCl (0.5-5.25%) is current gold standard endodontic irrigant combining profound antimicrobial and soft tissue solvent activity, provided that it is used with care and is contained in the canal system7.Only highest 5.25% concentration of NaOCl killed Enterococci faecalis in 30 sec:, main microorganism of root canal infections9. Higher concentrations is maximizing the tissue dissolving and antibacterial properties10 , but more severe peri-apical tissue damage often results in case of accidental extrusion of irrigant such as NaOCl11. Lower concentrations have antibacterial, not tissue dissolving property are used to minimize post-operative sequelae10. Combination of chelating agents such as EDTA and irrigants such as NaOCl can be used. However, excess cutting of canal dentine and extrusion of the irrigants beyond the apex are matters of concern12. It is thus important to consider biocompatibility when choosing an endodontic irrigant13. Globally, there are few published data on irrigant choice in dental practice, or on the transfer of irrigant choice from dental institutes to independent practice. Local references are not present. My rationale of study is that collected data will be used for awareness of dental practitioners about irrigants used and education in dental institutes for transfer of best irrigant from dental institutes to independent practice. It will improve the quality of endodontic treatments of patients.
The objectives of this study are to:
1. To evaluate the different types of root canal irrigants used in Pakistan dental practice.
2. To evaluate the percentage of Sodium hypochlorite used.
Material and Methods
Study Design : Cross-Section Study
Sample Size : Minimum 500 participants.
Sampling Method : Non-probability, convenience sampling.
Duration of Study : 06 months after the approval of synopsis.
Inclusion Criteria
Specialists in operative dentistry/endodontics.
Post graduate trainees in operative dentistry.
Dental practitioners.
Intern/House Officers.
Exclusion Criteria
Those dentists who are not practicing endodontics.
Undergraduate students.
Data Collection Procedure
Data will be collected through questionnaire. In the initial phase, the dental institutes would be contacted and request form will be distributed to obtain permission from the Principals/Deans or the Medical Superintendents of the Dental Institutes of Pakistan to conduct the study in their setup(Annex I).Current addresses of participants will be collected from Pakistan Medical and Dental Council(PMDC), Pakistan Dental Association(PDA) and Dental Institutes in Pakistan. Then questionnaire will be despatched to dental practitioners and dental institutes along with covering letter and a stamped addressed envelope for return. The participants would be required to fill a questionnaire (Annex II) consists of questions concerning the use of root canal irrigants and percentage of NaOCl in root canal irrigation.
For each question, participants would be asked to select one answer. After 6 weeks, remind letters with an additional questionnaire and stamped addressed envelope will be send to non-responders.
Statistical Methods
Data will be analyzed using SPSS version 10.0. Frequencies and percentages will be computed to present all categorical variables including demographic data of respondents e.g. qualification, duration of professional experience, designation, name of Institute, root canal irrigant of choice, concentration of Sodium hypochlorite; Chi-square test will be applied to compare significance of proportions at p < 0.05 level of significance of these categorical variables.

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