MAIN POINTS—-PHARMACOLOGY PAST PAPERS 1973-2000
ADMINISTRATION of single 1gm dose of asprin instead of usuall 650mg will increase anti inflammatory response to the drug.
Cocaine produced powerful stimulation of cerebral cortex.
Most systemic side effect of LA toxicity is post convulsion CNS depression.
Primary action of therapeutic dose of digitalis on cardiac muscle is increase in contraction.
Digitalis is used in the treatment of 1.A fibrillation 2.CHF 3. Proximal A.trachycardia
Pathogenomic symptoms of NARCOTIC overdose is 1.meiosis 2.respiratory depression 3. COMA
Sulfonylurea ——————-increase stimulation of pancreatic secretion of insulin
Pretreatment with reserpine prevents a response to amphetamine
Drugs which decrease potassium level increases toxicity to digitalis
Methyl testosterone—- 1. Premature closure of epiphysis of long bone 2.hirshhuitsm in women
Erythromycin estolate—-allergic cholestatic hepatitis
Prominent toxic effects of mercury are 1.gingivitis 2.speach difficulties 3. Visual disturbance
Amphetamine abuse causes extreme violence and paranoid psychotic behavior.
Severe hypertension—gunathidiene and ganglionic blockers
Patient allergic to amide and ester type of LA—we will go for diphenhydramine
Disulfiram reaction are caused by accumulation of acetaldehyde
Most resistant part of CNS is medulla oblongata
Effective antidote for mercury poisning is dimecarpol b/c it form stable complex with mercury and allows it to be excreted in inactive compound.
Babrbiturates and morphine causes respiratory depression and rendering respiratory centers less sensitive to CO2 changes.
C.I to use oral contraceptive are 1. History of breast cancer 2.hypertension 3.undiagnosed genital bleeding 4. Thromboembolic diseases.
Digitalis toxicity 1.inc PR interval 2.AV conduction block 3.yellow green vision 4.nausea and vominting 5.extrasystole.
Most important therapeutic measure to be taken in case of barbiturates poisning is to assure adequate respiration.
Most frequent cause of faiting associated with LA is pshycic factor.
Outstanding advantage of phenytoin rather than Phenobarbital in the drug therapy of epilepsy is less sedative effect for a given degree of suppression of seizure activity.
Most likely sign of and symptoms of over dosage with atropine are CNS excitation and tracycardia.
High plasma level of LA may causes depression of inhibitory neuron in CNS .
Salicyclates——-anti pyretic action—vasodilatation——increase heat loss.
Pre operative medication——promethazine
Tolbutamide——-maturity onset DM
Phenybutazine——–bone marrow depression
Phenacetin and acetaminophen posses similar properties
LA induced convulsion by effects on 1.limbic system 2.cerebral cortex.
Reserpine 1. Prevents reuptake of NE by storage granules 2.depletes NE from adrenergic neuron.
Delayed menifestaion of anaphylaxis —————-cortecosteroids
Immediate menifestaion of anaphylaxis——epinephrine.
Relative contraindication of morphine are 1.asthama 2. Head injury 3. Chronic pain from cancer
Drugs causing meiosis 1.morphine 2. Pilocarpine 3. Phsiostigmene 4. Reserpine 5.phenoxybenzamine
Methicillin and penicillin G are inactivated by stomach acids.
Grand mal epilepsy—-phenytoin
Epinephrine+halothane——-serious cardain irregularities
Mixture of sulfonamides have an advantage over single sulfonamides in that mixture reduces renal toxicity.
Anti anxiety drugs——-skeletal muscle relaxation by depressing polysynaptic pathway in spinal cord and higher center.
Dental patient on clonidine therapy most often complains of xerostomia.
LA acts on nerve membrane to displace ca++.
Phenothizenes-1. Sedation 2.anti emetic 3.anti histamine 4.narcotics.
Oral contraceptive side effects…thrombophlebitis, headache, nausea,vomiting, liver function disturbance and abnormal pattern of skin pigmentation.
Scopolamine tends to obscure eye sign.
Dry mouth, dec in secretory and motor activity of GIT tract, mydriasis and difficulty in accommodation are caused by 1.anti histamine 2.ganglionic blocking agent
Methoxylation of morphine———–codeine
Barbiturates with drawl——-changes in ECG and convulsion.
Ephedrine causes mydriasis but no cycloplagia.
Propranol contraindications 1.hypoglycemia 2.asthama 3.CHF 4. P existing AV block.
Factors common to drug abuse———psycological disturbance.
Glucocortecosteriods in anaphylaxis—-b/c suppress the inflammatory response to cell injury.
Pressor dose of NE———-bradycardia due to baroreceptor reflex.
Ototxicity is caused by—-loop diuretics and aminoglycosides.
All have long duration of action due to liver generated active metabolites 1.dizepam 2.flurazepam 3.chlordizeperoxide.
Tetracycline have low tendency for sensitization but high therapeutic index.
Narrow angel glaucoma contraindication———meperdine, scopolamine and diazepam.
CNS depressant——1. Alcohal 2.phenothizenes 3.barbiturates 4.MAO inhibitor 5.tranquilizers
Following drugs causes adverse reaction when taken in the presence of MAO inhibitor 1. Epinephrine 2.amphetamine 3. Tyramine
Controlled drugs——–CMOP (codeine, meprobamate oxycodeiene and Phenobarbital)
Side effects of reserpine—–nasal stiffness, postural hypotension and potentition of barb and narcotic agents.
Acute asthamatic attack due to praponol—–DOC IS AMINOPHILLINE.
1ST clinical useful and systemic antiinfective was sulfonamides.
H2O2————hypertrophy of filliform papilla of toungue.
Germicidal action of Benzallkonium chloride is rapidly reduced in the presence of soap.
Principle central action of caffeine is in cerebral cortex.
Cardain arrythymias are more commonly seen during administration of halothane.
Use of vasoconstrictor in combination with LA is contraindicated in the dental patient with parkinsons disease who is on levadopa therapy.
CHF shows digitalis toxicity————-DOC is triamterene.
Adverse effects of sympatholytics are 1 GIT disturbance 2. Postural hypotension 3.nasal congestion 4.Meiosis
Side effects of phenytoin are 1. Ataxia 2.nystagmus 3.photophobia 4.B.dyscrasias.
Theoretical uses of scopolamine are 1. Peptic ulcer 2.euphoria and amenesia b/f surgery 3.releiving bronchoconstriction 4.parkinsons diseases 5.visulization of retina.
Vasoconstrictor are 1.epinephrine 2.levonordefin 3.phenylpherine.