Pharmacology points by Dr Rabia Shafique

MAIN POINTS—-PHARMACOLOGY PAST PAPERS 1973-2000

ADMINISTRATION of single 1gm dose of asprin instead of usuall 650mg will increase anti inflammatory response to the drug.

Cocaine produced powerful stimulation of cerebral cortex.

Most systemic side effect of LA toxicity is post convulsion CNS depression.

Primary action of therapeutic dose of digitalis on cardiac muscle is increase in contraction.

Digitalis is used in the treatment of 1.A fibrillation 2.CHF 3. Proximal A.trachycardia

Pathogenomic symptoms of NARCOTIC overdose is 1.meiosis 2.respiratory depression 3. COMA

Sulfonylurea ——————-increase stimulation of pancreatic secretion of insulin

Pretreatment with reserpine prevents a response to amphetamine

Drugs which decrease potassium level increases toxicity to digitalis

Methyl testosterone—- 1. Premature closure of epiphysis of long bone 2.hirshhuitsm in women

Erythromycin estolate—-allergic cholestatic hepatitis

Prominent toxic effects of mercury are 1.gingivitis 2.speach difficulties 3. Visual disturbance

Amphetamine abuse causes extreme violence and paranoid psychotic behavior.

Scopolamine antidote-phsiostigmene

Severe hypertension—gunathidiene and ganglionic blockers

Patient allergic to amide and ester type of LA—we will go for diphenhydramine

Disulfiram reaction are caused by accumulation of acetaldehyde

Most resistant part of CNS is medulla oblongata

Effective antidote for mercury poisning is dimecarpol b/c it form stable complex with mercury and allows it to be excreted in inactive compound.

Babrbiturates and morphine causes respiratory depression and rendering respiratory centers less sensitive to CO2 changes.

C.I to use oral contraceptive are 1. History of breast cancer 2.hypertension 3.undiagnosed genital bleeding 4. Thromboembolic diseases.

Digitalis toxicity 1.inc PR interval 2.AV conduction block 3.yellow green vision 4.nausea and vominting 5.extrasystole.

Most important therapeutic measure to be taken in case of barbiturates poisning is to assure adequate respiration.

Most frequent cause of faiting associated with LA is pshycic factor.

Outstanding advantage of phenytoin rather than Phenobarbital in the drug therapy of epilepsy is less sedative effect for a given degree of suppression of seizure activity.

Most likely sign of and symptoms of over dosage with atropine are CNS excitation and tracycardia.

High plasma level of LA may causes depression of inhibitory neuron in CNS .

Salicyclates——-anti pyretic action—vasodilatation——increase heat loss.

Pre operative medication——promethazine

Tolbutamide——-maturity onset DM

Phenybutazine——–bone marrow depression

Phenacetin and acetaminophen posses similar properties

LA induced convulsion by effects on 1.limbic system 2.cerebral cortex.

Reserpine 1. Prevents reuptake of NE by storage granules 2.depletes NE from adrenergic neuron.

Delayed menifestaion of anaphylaxis —————-cortecosteroids

Immediate menifestaion of anaphylaxis——epinephrine.

Relative contraindication of morphine are 1.asthama 2. Head injury 3. Chronic pain from cancer

Drugs causing meiosis 1.morphine 2. Pilocarpine 3. Phsiostigmene 4. Reserpine 5.phenoxybenzamine

Methicillin and penicillin G are inactivated by stomach acids.

Ether—–fire hazards.

Grand mal epilepsy—-phenytoin

Epinephrine+halothane——-serious cardain irregularities

Mixture of sulfonamides have an advantage over single sulfonamides in that mixture reduces renal toxicity.

Anti anxiety drugs——-skeletal muscle relaxation by depressing polysynaptic pathway in spinal cord and higher center.

Dental patient on clonidine therapy most often complains of xerostomia.

LA acts on nerve membrane to displace ca++.

Phenothizenes-1. Sedation 2.anti emetic 3.anti histamine 4.narcotics.

Oral contraceptive side effects…thrombophlebitis, headache, nausea,vomiting, liver function disturbance and abnormal pattern of skin pigmentation.

Scopolamine tends to obscure eye sign.

Dry mouth, dec in secretory and motor activity of GIT tract, mydriasis and difficulty in accommodation are caused by 1.anti histamine 2.ganglionic blocking agent

Methoxylation of morphine———–codeine

Barbiturates with drawl——-changes in ECG and convulsion.

Ephedrine causes mydriasis but no cycloplagia.

Propranol contraindications 1.hypoglycemia 2.asthama 3.CHF 4. P existing AV block.

Factors common to drug abuse———psycological disturbance.

Quinidine——–supraventricular trachyaruthymias.

Glucocortecosteriods in anaphylaxis—-b/c suppress the inflammatory response to cell injury.

Pressor dose of NE———-bradycardia due to baroreceptor reflex.

Ototxicity is caused by—-loop diuretics and aminoglycosides.

Hepatotoxic——tetracycline

All have long duration of action due to liver generated active metabolites 1.dizepam 2.flurazepam 3.chlordizeperoxide.

Tetracycline have low tendency for sensitization but high therapeutic index.

Narrow angel glaucoma contraindication———meperdine, scopolamine and diazepam.

Bacitracin———-topical antibiotics.

CNS depressant——1. Alcohal 2.phenothizenes 3.barbiturates 4.MAO inhibitor 5.tranquilizers

Following drugs causes adverse reaction when taken in the presence of MAO inhibitor 1. Epinephrine 2.amphetamine 3. Tyramine

Controlled drugs——–CMOP (codeine, meprobamate oxycodeiene and Phenobarbital)

Side effects of reserpine—–nasal stiffness, postural hypotension and potentition of barb and narcotic agents.

Acute asthamatic attack due to praponol—–DOC IS AMINOPHILLINE.

1ST clinical useful and systemic antiinfective was sulfonamides.

H2O2————hypertrophy of filliform papilla of toungue.

Germicidal action of Benzallkonium chloride is rapidly reduced in the presence of soap.

Principle central action of caffeine is in cerebral cortex.

Cardain arrythymias are more commonly seen during administration of halothane.

Use of vasoconstrictor in combination with LA is contraindicated in the dental patient with parkinsons disease who is on levadopa therapy.

CHF shows digitalis toxicity————-DOC is triamterene.

Adverse effects of sympatholytics are 1 GIT disturbance 2. Postural hypotension 3.nasal congestion 4.Meiosis

Side effects of phenytoin are 1. Ataxia 2.nystagmus 3.photophobia 4.B.dyscrasias.

Theoretical uses of scopolamine are 1. Peptic ulcer 2.euphoria and amenesia b/f surgery 3.releiving bronchoconstriction 4.parkinsons diseases 5.visulization of retina.

Vasoconstrictor are 1.epinephrine 2.levonordefin 3.phenylpherine.

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