Past paper Mcqs Solved by Dr Maryam Malik.
Hope It Will Help you Guys.
1-Present in all the teeth??
2-Nasal necrosis, protein-urea,vasculitis…….Diagnosis???
4-Epidemic and lest chances of liver cirrhosis ??
5-What doesn’t affects preload??
- Preloadis affected by venous blood pressure and the rate of venous return.
- These are affected by venous tone and volume of circulating blood.
- Preload is related to the ventricular end-diastolic volume
- higher end-diastolic volume implies a higher preload.
Acidosis —–>lactic acid production —–>vasodilation ——> ↓ preload ↓stroke vol
Acidosis… –> hyperkelimia …–> ↓ force of contraction …. ↓stroke volume
Note: Decrease in stroke volume is mainly due to decreased contractility of left ventricle
CO= SV x HR
STROKE VOLUME –> three factors (CAP)
SV is dependent on EDV (determined by preload)
ESV (determined by contractility).
EDV IS inversely proportional to HR.
CO DEPENDS ON VENOUS RETURN!!!!
Renin > symp
Adh > inc plasma osmolarity .
Aldo > inc K
Angio > dec Blood vol ???
Anp > inc atrial pressure.. increase blood volume which will put tension of wall
q.. Which of the following decreases preload
Note: Nitroglycerin- relax veins
Hydralzine relax arterioles
Napruside Veins plus Arterioles
all regarding NITROGLYCERINE are true except:
a dec heart rate Answer (Reflex tachycardia)
b dec after load
c red cardiac output
best indicator of preload is:
a.pulmonary capillary wedge pressue
b.ventricular end diastolic volume answer
c.end systolic volume
Top of Form
INFERIOR SALIVATORY NUCLEUS
- tympanic plexus –> preparasymp fiber from glossopharyngeal nerve via lesser petrosal nerve –> OTIC Ganglion
–>postgang.secretomoter fiber via auriculotemporal nerve(V-3) to PARotiD gland
Pterygopalatine Ganglion (Meckel’s ganglion, nasal ganglion or sphenopalatine ganglion) is associated with–>
the greater petrosal nerve (a branch of the facial nerve); and its axons project to the lacrimal glands and nasal mucosa
NOTE: Preganglionic. via greater petrosal nerve –> Ptergopalatineganglia –>
Post ganglionic.secretomoter BY zygomaticotemporal branch of maxillary nerve &
BY lacrimal nerve(V-1) to LACRIMAL Gland.
Parasympathetic supply to sub mandibular gland is
from–> Sup salivary nucleus via chorda tympani of the facial nerve JOIN Lingual nerve –> SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND–> POSTganglionic fiber to gland.
PARASYMPATHATIC NUCLEI OF DIFFERENT CRANIAL NERVE
# OCCULUMOTOR NERVE –> EDENGER WESTPHAL NU
#FACIAL NERVE –> LACRIMATORY & SUPERIOR SALIVATORY NU
#GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE –> INFERIOR SALIVATORY NU
#VAGUS NERVE –> DORSAL NU OF VAGUS
Foramin spinosum –> M3
1.middle meningeal artery
2.middle meningeal vein
3.meningeal branch if mandibular nerve
Facial paralysis and loss of ant 2/3rd of tongue. Facial nerve damaged at à –> facial canal
Para sympathetic fiber from CN 9 via Lesser petrosal nerve through foramen oval
Deep and greater petrosal nerve through foramen lacerum
ANTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA
- Cribriform palate……………olfactory nerve
- foramen Cecum…………….small emissiory veins
- Anterior & Posterior ethmoidal foramina…………. ethmoidal nerves, veins, arteries
MIDDLE CRANIAL FOSSA
- Optic canal……………….optic nerve, ophthalmic artery, central artery and vein of retina
- Superior orbital fissure…………….. 3,4,6 cranial nerve,
opthalmic division of trigeminal nerve and opthalmic vein
- Foramen rotundum………….maxillary division of trigeminal nerve
- foramen ovale……. MALE………..madibular division of trigeminal nerve, accessory meningeal artery, lesserpetrosal nerve, emmisory vein
- foramen lacerum………greater and deep petrosal nerve,parasympathetic fibers from CN7 via nervus intermedius
- Carotid canal………………internal carotid artery, carotid plexus
POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA
- internal auditory meatus…………….,7,8 cranial nerve, and labyrinth artery
- juglar foramen……………….9,10 cranial nerve, spinal accessory nerve and internal juglar vein
- hypoglassal canal………………hypoglassal nerve and meningeal artery
- condyloid foramen…………..condyloid emissiory vein
- mastoid foramen…………….mastoid emissiory vein, occipital artery
- foramen magnum……………Medulla oblongata/spinal cord ,Vertebral arteries spinal accessory nerve
FORAMEN IN FRONT OF SKULL
- mental foramen………..mental nerve+ A + V
- zygomaticofacial foramen…………… zygomaticofacial nerve
- supra orbital notch………………supraorbital nerve and vessel
- infraorbital foramen…………..infraorbtal nerve
FORAMEN IN BASE OF SKULL
- stylomastoid foramen………….fascial nerve
- insicive canal……………nasopalatine nerve
- pterotympanic fissure…………..chorda tympani and tympanic artery
- greater palatine foramen……………greater palatine nerve and vessel(A+V)
- lesser palatine foramen……………lesser palatine nerve and vessel(A+v)
- palatine canal…………….descending palatine vessel, as well asgreaterand lesser palatine nerves
Foramen lacerum transmits?
A. Deep petrosal nerve
B. Greater petrosal nerve
C. Internal carotid artery
D. Meningeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
Foramen Lacerum contents:MEIG
1.structures that passes WHOLLY thru it→Meningeal branch if Ascending pharyngeal artery+Emissary Veins
2.Structures that PARTIALLY Traverses it→Internal Carotid artery(Atually it bypass foramen) + Greater Petrosal nerve!
here we prefer A!
Excessive nasal secretions, which nerve damaged
ANSWER : Deep petrosal bcz it’s sympathetic. Excessive secretions are caused by dominance of parasympathetic
7-Spongy bone…..haversian canal??
Anatomy of the bone.
The bone is made up of compact bone, spongy bone, and bone marrow.
Compact bone makes up the outer layer of the bone.
Spongy bone is found mostly at the ends of bones and contains red marrow.
Bone marrow is found in the center of most bones and has many blood vessels.
There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow.
Red marrow contains blood stem cells that can become red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Yellow marrow is made mostly of fat.
in osteopetrosis , osteoblasts operate unopposed
in osteoPOROSIS osteoclasts r unopposed.
Compact bone contains:
- Osteoblast cells in d lacunar spaces
b. Contain large no f cavities
c. Covered byspongy bone
d. None f above
What are the spicules on spongy bone called:
Lamellae are characteristic of
A) compact bone tissue.
B) cancellous bone tissue.
C) spongy bone tissue.
D) hyaline cartilage.
The first step in intramembranous ossification is formation of
A. Calcified matrix
B. Spongy bone
C. Haversian systems
D. Vascular mesenchyme
E. Concentric lamellae
ALVEOLAR BONE PROPER consists of
a. lamellar and spongy bone
b. bundle and woven bone
c. spongy n bundle bone
d. woven n lamellar bone
e. lamellar n bundle bone
Which of the following is resonsible for production of new bone that will re unit the two fractured fragments? A.callus b.cartilage c. Compct boned.periosteum e.spongy bone
Q: Concerning Haversian canals in the bone histology, pick the odd one:
- Also called longitudinal canals
b. Serves nutrient function to bones
c. Surrounded by outer circumferential lamellae
d. Surrounded by inner circumferential lamellae
e. Volkman’s canal pierces it at right anglE
ANS; D is the odd one.. It is surrounded by outer circumferential lamellar
Q: LONGITIDNAL CANAL OF BONES (HAVERSIAN CANAL) CONTAINS,,
NOTE : Each osteon consists of concentric layers, or lamellae, of compact bone tissue that surround a central canal, the Haversian canal
Q 2 Osteonic canals communicating with the medullary cavity obliquely or transversely are known as:
Volkmans canals are the one which r running obliqely/transcersely and communicate with medullary cavity thru haversian canals which r running longitudenly and forming the Osteon
osteocytes r located in which of da following structures of bone:
a)periosteum b)canaliculi c)haversian canal d)lamellae e)lacunae
8-Sour taste region on the tongue??
Sour and hot is perceived bytongue through
A..von enber cells
B..foliate papillae ANSWER
THE TASTE MAP:
The back of the tongue: bitter tastes.
The sides of the tongue near the back: sour tastes.
The sides of the tongue near the front: salty tastes.
The tip of the tongue: sweet tastes.
Glands of Von ebner secrete lingual lipase
Fungiform papillae are present mostly at the apex (tip) of the tongue, as well as at the sides.
Filiform papillae don’t contain taste buds but are the most numerous.
Foliate papillae are ridges and grooves towards the posterior part of the tongue found on lateral margins
Sweet, Bitter, and Umami work with a signal through a G protein-coupled receptor
Salty and Sour, work with ion channels.
When adrenals are removed which taste is more?
Salty ANS ( Aldosterone inc sensitivity of taste buds to Na.
Thus adrenal when removed would dec Aldosterone production thus dec the over all sensitivity to salty taste. )
The sensation of sour is mediated by
B. protons blocking K+ channels.
D. activation of T1R3 receptors.
Human beings are most sensitive to?
- sweet taste
- Umami taste
- sour taste
- salty taste
- bitter taste ans
Lost of sensation of post 1/3 of glossopharyngeal
A. Bitter taste ans
9-Anxiolytic drug for the child patient?? –> chloral hydrate
LORAZEPAM IS THE SAFEST AMONG ALL BENZODIZIPINE TO B USE IN CLD
a.are major tranquilizerz
b.are nit hyonotics
c.are not sedatives
d.produce a harmful interaction with alcohol
e.producr a harmful interaction with aspirin
10-Diazepam acts where in the CNS??–>correct statement given below
Diazepam relaxes skeletal muscles by acting on
Interneuron (B/c diazepam z benzodiazepine nd inhibitor of GABA recepter frequency thatact on interneuron.)
SEDATIVE HYNOTICS acts on cerebral cortex
Most benzodiazepines have long half lives and active metabolites (exceptions are triazolam midazolam oxazepam which are shortacting )
QLocal anesthetic act by..
A.inhibit k channel
B.inc Na channel activity
C.causes hyper plorization
D.inhibit voltage activated Na channel
E.inhibit voltage activated K channel
Which of the following drug least cross BBb
Density if CSF Is
A.0.005 _ 0.006
D.1.0005 _ 1.0007
Gases while passing from alveoli to pulmonary venous blood follows the law?
E Frinyl,s law
11-Repeated transfusion causes??
Most common blood transfusion reaction is:
B) Febrile nonhaemolytic reactions
C) Fluid overload
D) Transmission of viruses
12-Detoxification is a function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum? true
13-Buccinator muscle is innervated by??buccal branch of Facial N
pt cant open mouth which muscle injured
Which of the following muscles is supplied by mandibular nerve
C.tensor veli palati
D.post belly of digastri
Important Information About Anatomy
1) All intrinsic muscles of Larynx are supplied by Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Except Cricothyroid which is supplied by External Laryngeal Nerve
2) All Muscles of Tongue are supplied by Hypoglossal Nerve Except Palatoglossus which is supplied by Pharyngeal Plexus
3) All muscles of Pharynx are supplied by Pharyngeal Plexus Except Stylopharyngeus which is supplied by Glossopharyngeal Nerve
4) All Muscles of Soft Palate are supplied by Pharyngeal Plexus Except Tensor Veli Palatini which is supplied by Nerve To Medial Pterygoid
5) All muscles of Fascial Expression are supplied by Facial
nerve Except Levator Palpebrae Superoris which is supplied by Occulomotor Nerve …
* Cervical branch of facial nerve supplies—>.Platysma
* Parotid duct pierces buccinator n crosses masseter
During yawning, blood flow of which muscle is increased –> lateral pterygoid
Muscles invloved in whistling –>Buccinator
Which of the following pairs of muscles would be most useful in sucking liquads through a straw?
A. Levator anguli oris and zygomaticus major
B. Buccinator and orbicularis oris.
C. Orbicularis oris and depresor anguli oris.
D. Levator labii superioris and depresor labii inferioris.
E. Buccinator and depresor labíi inferioris.
fACIAL NERVE IS SECTIONED IN OPERATION OF PAROTID GLSND .WHICH MUSCLE IS MOST LIKELY PARALYZED
3 MEDIAL PTERYGOID
There r two types of facial palsies,umn type n lmn type…..lmn type also called bell’s palsy
idiopathic facial palsy is Bell’s palsy while due to any lesion is facial palsy…..
Bells Palsy= Stylomastoid foramen LMN
Facial palsy= Facial canal UMN
Loss of taste= Tractus solitaries
Ramsay Hunt…= Trigeminal never..facial nerve and trigeminal nucleus involvement..due to herpes zoster
Shingles= Varicella zoster.. painful lesions along the course of trigeminal nerve
Hyperacusis in bell’s palsy is due to the paralysis of –> stapedius
A 33-year-old woman develops Bell’s palsy. She must be cautious because this
can result in corneal inflammation and subsequent ulceration. This symptom
results from which of the following conditions
A. Sensory loss of the cornea and conjunctiva
B. Lack of secretion of the parotid gland
C. Absence of the corneal blink reflex
D. Absence of sweating on the face
E. Inability to constrict the pupil
Downward and outward deviation of eye ball….with ptosis….and dilated pupilàCN 3 palsy
15-If left hypoglossal nerve is damaged tongue deviates towards which side??
16-Which muscle doesn’t form the floor of posterior triangle??
17-Synchondrosis joint between the bone??
Primary cartilage.joint (Growth plate is a primary cartilaginous joint)
They are also known as synchondrosis / hyaline cartilage joints
The bones are joined by a plate of hyaline cartilage
It does not permit any movement
Other examples: Costochondral joint, chondro sternal joint, Spheno-occipital joint
cartiliginousjoints r of 2 types.synchondrosis and symphysis.synchondrosis r joined by hyaline cartilage.eg attachmnt of frst rib to sternum.whereas in symphesis 2 bones r joined by fibrocartilage
18-Most congenitally occurring cardiac defect??
Most Common Congenital heart “Lesion” = Bicuspid aortic valve.
Most Common Congenital heart “Defect” = VSD.
Regarding VSD & ASD:
At birth the Most Common is VSD, later (in older infants & adults) due to spontaneous closure of small VSD it is NOT that much common.
first trimester cataract manly common
In second trimester its sensrineurl defect
Drug causes Hypertrichosis
c.Sodium valporic acid
Which drug is associated with hypertrichosis:
D. Sex influenced character
20-Clindamycin cause pseudomembranous colitis?? True clindamycin & ampicillin
21-Wernicke’s area in brain??
Area 22: Superior temporal gyrus, the caudal part contains theWernicke’s area, Auditory Association Cortex
Area 39: Angular gyrus, considered to be part of Wernicke’s area
Area 40: Supramarginal gyrus, part of Wernicke’s area; Lesion ofWernicke’s area result in aphasia and alexia
22-Facial nerve nucleus…..tractus solitarius?? Loss of taste –> nucleus solitarius or geniculate ganglion.
If lesion in facial canal…fascial palsy e lose of taste sensation
If lesion at stylo-mastoid foramen or outside cranial cavity…only ipsilateral fascial palsy & taste intact
in supranuclear leasion…contralateral lower face palsy
Infranuclear facial n palsy that is bells palsy…ipsilateral fascial palsy (from forehead to chin)
23-Foul smelling fluid is caused by which bacteria??
clostridium bacteroides and actinomyces – obligate anaerobe- are foul smelling
24-Globulomaxillary cyst occurs in which area?? pear shaped radiolucency causing displacement of the roots of vital maxillary lateral and cuspid teeth
25-Exogenous melanin pigmentation occurs in ??statment not correct
Cushing diseases because of more ACTH and hence more POMCT…a precursor of Melanin
ANTHRACOTIC PIGMENTS AND LEAD IS INCLUDED IN EXOGENOUSACCOMULATION.OUTSIDE THE CELLSSS..WHILE BILIUROBIN,CHOLESTREOL,GLYCOGEN.HEMATIN.HEAMOSIDERIN,FERRITIN,MELANIN,PROTIEN,AND TRYGLYCERIDES ARE ENDOGENOUS ACCOMULATION
Q…. Chronic hemolysis, pigment released is
Q… Most abundant endogenous pigment deposition after chronic haemolysis
26-Most vertically angled tooth is?? Maxillary canine
- 27-Auriculotemporal nerve is cut ,which sensations are lost?? .
This nerve as it courses posteriorly to the condylar head, is frequently injured in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery, causing an ipsilateral parasthesia of the auricle and skin surrounding the ear. Actually, it is the main nerve that supplies the TMJ, along with branches of the masseteric nerve and the deep temporal.
supplies the auricle, external acoustic meatus, outer side of the tympanic membrane and the skin in the temporal region (superficial temporal branches). It also carries a few articular branches that go on to supply thetemporomandibular joint.
.Postganglionic parasympathetic secretomotor fibres via auriculotemporal nerve to supply parotid gland
- Frey’s Syndrome is a syndrome that includes sweating while eating (gustatory sweating) and facial flushing. It is caused by injury to a nerve, called the auriculotemporal nerve, typically after surgical trauma to the parotid gland.
Frey’s syndrom is also called as auriculotemporal syndrom coz of damage to auriculotemporal nerve
- LACRIMATION when eating z CROCODILE TEARS that’s due to facialnerve…..also called gastatolacrimatory refelx ….* SWEATING is due to AURICULOTEMPORAL …..seen commonly after parotid gland surgery
28-Parotid nerve supply??
29-Cavernous sinus infection?? facial infection spreads though cavernous sinus on face via SUPERIOR opthlmc vein …
30-Lateral rectus muscle??
31-Olfactory depends on dissolving??
32-No sebaceous glands?? palms and sole of feet
33-Solely elastic cartilage is found where among the laryngeal cartilages??
34-Carcinoma of which cell in pharynx??
cleft plate is due to failure of lateral platine process ..median platine and nasal septum and cleft lip due to failure of maxillary process and medial nasal process
Which one of the following bones does not form part of the orbit?
37-Most salty ion??
39-Morphine should not be given in combination with??
40-Not essential for clotting,,,,antithrombin 3??
41-Half life calculation??
42-Differentiate cementoblastoma from granuloma??
43-Ameloblastoma?? Most common type of ameloblastoma? A acanthomatous b follicular c granular??
44-Most common cyst ……Dentigerous cyst?? true
45-Micelles consist of??
46-Peroxidase is produced by??
47-Signs of dysplasia?? Inc nu to cytoplasm ratio
48-What is false about esophagus?? esophagus begin at t6 –> false (at C6)
Barrett’s esophagus is a premalignant condition. Which of the following statement is false regarding Barrett’s esophagus.
a) Barrett’s mucosa predisposes to Squamous cell carcinoma ofesophagus .(adenoca)
b) Risk of Cancer is 0.5% per year,
c) Prevalence of Barrett’s esophagus in general population is 2-7% .
d) Intestinal type of mucosa with goblet cells is the most common histopathological finding .
Q:The movement of bolus in esophagus is changed in its difrent parts.This is due to
a.The type of muscles is different in upper,middle and lower region
b.due to gravity
c.due to acidity
d.due to change in neuromascular pattern
The thoracic duct enters the thorax thro the opening for inf. Vena cava –> true
49-Vagus nerve innervates??
incorrct abt vagus nerv
it is the longest cranial nerve
passes post to carotid sheath
Major parasympathetic nerve which can end life if injured ? / Bilateral damage of which nerve leads to death ?
Which of the following doesn’t have any sensory supply:
A. Hypoglossal nerve
B. Vagus nerve
D. Trochlear nerve
The parasympathetic nerves are carried out by which Cranial nerves ? / 70 percent parasympathetic outflow in?
A-3 , 7 , 9 , 10 cranial nerves
In the midle ear the b/c??
A.facial nerve descends thro Ant. Wall
B.floor overlies the carotid canal
C.foot plate of the stapes overlies the round window
D.muscle attached to the ossicles are supplied by the vagus nerve
E.the chorda tympani lies on medial wall
post ganglionic sympathetic neurons are
a thoracic spinal nerves
b lumbar spinal nerves
c cervical spinal nerves
d lumbar spinal nerves
e every spinal nerve
following is true abt vagus nerve
a contains motor fibers for pharynx
b it effectsr blocked by acetylcholine
c innervates thoracic viscera
d innervates urinary bladder
e is an efferent nerve
The lungs and visceral pleura receive parasympathetic innervation from:?
- A) the phrenic nerve
B) spinal nerve II
C) cranial nerve IX
D) the vagus nerve
Parasympathetic vagal fibers innervate all except?
A) SA node
B) AV node
E) all are innervted
nerve present on lateral side of trachea is
Phrenic supply fibrous n parietal pericardium & visceral is supply by cardiac plexus ( sympathetic + vagus)
Branches of vagus
A- Auricular nerve
P- Pharyngeal nerve
E- Esophageal plexus
S- Superior laryngeal nerve (Gives internal ‘sensory’ and external ‘motor’ LN)
C- Cardiac branches
R- Recurrent laryngeal nerve
A- Anterior Vagal Trunk
P- Posterior Vagal Trunk
Patient having subdural Haematoma ,which cranial nerve is effected
Parietal & visceral pericardium suplied by
This cranial nerve is actually a tract of CNS with meninges:
- Metastatis occur in all except
- aortic pressure lowest during which phase of cardiac cycle??
- Diminished jaw jerk due to lesion of
A. Mesencephalic nucleus of Vnerve
B. Facial motor nucleus
C. Glossophyrngeal injury
- Esophago gastric junction competence is
A. lying supine
B. increased intra abdominal pressure
C. diaphragm paralysis
D. use of metoclopramide
Pleura r supplied by all ov da following xcept?
c.recurrent laryngeal nerves.
50-Hormone released at night which inhibits gonadotropins?? Melatonin stimulates GONADOTROPHIN INHIBITORY FACTOR that inhibits GnRH
51-Tract of jugular nerve?? Haemmorhage during tracheostomy occurs due to a) Isthumus b) Inferior Thyroid Artery c) Superior Thyroid Artery d) Anterior Jugular Vein
52-Alkaline phosphatase increases tooth deposition??
53-Test for hepatitis??
54-Parathyroid hormone responsible for??
55-Pituitary tumor can cause ocular problems??
Common defects are upper temporal quadrantanopia and bitemporal hemianopia
Prolactin excess (prolactinoma or hyperprolactinaemia): histologically, prolactinomas are ‘chromophobe’ adenomas (a description of their appearance on classical histological staining)
GH excess (acromegaly or gigantism): somatotroph adenomas, usually ‘acidophil’, and sometimes due to specific G-protein mutations
excess ACTH secretion (Cushing’s disease and Nelson’s syndrome): corticotroph adenomas, usually ‘basophil
Pituitary and hypothalamic space-occupying lesions, hormonally active or not, can cause symptoms by pressure on, or infiltration of:
the visual pathways, with field defects and visual loss (most common)
the cavernous sinus, with III, IV and VI cranial nerve lesions
bony structures and the meninges surrounding the fossa, causing headache
hypothalamic centres: altered appetite, obesity, thirst, somnolence/wakefulness or precocious puberty
the ventricles, causing interruption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow leading to hydrocephalus
the sphenoid sinus with invasion causing CSF rhinorrhoea.
Tumor of ant pituatry causes lesion of whch nerve
most common cause of bitemporal hemianopia is
b pituitary tumour
Ist symptom of hypopitu sec to pituitary tumor is
Adult most common primary brain tumor is A. Meningioma B. glioblastoma multiforme C. Schawannoma d. Pituitary adenoma
A young women has puffy eyes and hoarse voice and her plasma TSH concentration is low but increases markedly when she is given TRH.
She Probably has:
A- Hyperthyroidism due to a thyroid tumor
B- Hypothyroidism due to a primary abnormality in Thyroid gland
C- Hypothyroidism due to a primary abnormality in Pituitary gland
D- Hypothyroidism due to a primary abnormality in the Hypothalamus
E- Hyperthyroidism due to a primary abnormality in the Hypothalamus
Pt with hyperthyroidism TSH low.TRH given it increase TSH level where is problem??
Note: If its hypothyroidsm thn problm in hypothalamus
If its hyperthyroidsm thn problm in thyroid…
A. Myasthenia gravis
B. Multiple sclerosis
a patient had hypophsectomy for pituitary tumor she has amenorrhea for 8 months ovulation induction can be done in her by:
d)hMG followed by pulsatile hCG\
Cushing disease:- increased ACTH from pituitary that stimulates adrenal.
Cushing syndrome:- excess steroids due to any cause.
Cushing triad:- headache,vomiting and papiloedema.
Cushing reflex:- increased BP with reflex bradycardia.
Cushing ulcer:- peptic ulcer due to CNS trauma or tumor.
56-Sinuses are lined by which cells??
57-Pneumatic bones in face??
Which of the following is not a pneumatic bone?
A. Frontal bone
Q.All are pneumatic bones Except ?
A : Maxilla
B : Parietal
C : Ethmoid
D : Mastoid
Q.spheniod bone is an example of;
A.irregular bone (Irregular bones are vertebrae,sacrum & mandible jaw)
Pneumatic bones are those which enclose an air filled cavity
They are seen in relation to the nasal cavity (paranasal sinuses) and the middle ear
The pneumatic bones are:
Temporal (mastoid air cells)
58-Caseating granuloma in TB??
59-Effect of anesthesia is fastest on which fiber??
60-Which one is COX-2 inhibitor??miloxi
61-Mu and kappa receptors??
62-What happens in irreversible ischemia of cell??
64-Hormone released during sleep??
65-Ansa cervicalis?? C123 plus hypoglossal collectively called ansa
Ansa Cervicalis, all are correct except,
- Supply to carotid body.
B. C1, 2, 3.
C. Joins hypoglossal.
D. Supply thyrohyoid.
66-Prostacyclin (PGI(2)) causes what??
Which of the following decrease platelet aggregation & cause vasodilatation?
- E. PGI2
PGI2 (prostacyclin) – most potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation (by increasing platelet cAMP) and causes relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.
1.ADH +angiotensin .thromboxin .prostaglandin F are
2.lactate+k+adenosin .prostacyclin .prostaglandin E are vasodilators
relation of right vagus nerve with trachea while entering thorax?
2.separated by recurrant laryngeal nerve
4.separated by phrenic nerve
5.separated by brachiocephalic vein
69-Coronary blood flow centigrade??
70-Hepatectomy?? Following PARTIAL HEPATECTOMY, remaining part can regenerate in
72-Urinary sphincter innervation??
73-Exercise increases end expiratory volume??
74-Most ventilated apex of the lung??
Insulin facilitates glucose uptake in all of the following tissues except?
Tissues in which insulin facilitates glucose uptake:-
- Skeletal muscle
- Cardiac muscle
- Smooth muscle
- Adipose tissue
- Crystalline lens of the eye
- Mammary gland
- A cells of pancreatic islets
Tissues in which insulin does not facilitate glucose uptake:-
- Brain (except probably part of hypothalamus)
- Kidney tubules
- Intestinal mucosa
- Red blood cells
Atropine is used clinically to treat?
“A goes with B”: So Atropine is used clinically to treat Bradycardia.
Contraindications Of AtropineJ
Atropine generally is contraindicated in patients with(except in doses ordinarily used for preanesthetic medication)
2- Pyloric stenosis
3- Prostatic hypertrophy
Dr Maryam Malik
Need Prayers 🙂