Important points for Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology

 

Important points for Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology

pterygopalatine ganglion also named as HAY fever ganglion

  1. PARA aortic or LATERAL node serve
    1.testis
    2.epididmis
    3.ranal tissue
    4.suprarenal gland
    5.ureter middle portion
    6.ovary
    7.uterine fundus
  2. alexia(cant read) with agraphia (cant write) lesion will b in PARIETAL lobe
    alexia WITHOUT agraphia lesion in OCCIPITAL lobe
  3. only colon develop mucosal herniation in its arterial supply area
  4. to remember anion gap component ….use this CPSP stands for
    c…citrate
    p..phosphate
    s..sulfate
    p..proteins
  5. BUFFERS….
    1.major extracellular…..HCO3
    2.major urinary…..phosphate
    3.major intracellular….Hb
    4.deocyhemoglobin better buffer than oxyhem.
    5.H ion in r.b.c are buffered by deoxyhemoglobin
  6. treatment of hypercal CEMIA is loop diuretics n treatment of idiopathic hypercalci URIA is thiazide diuretics
  7. arterioles gv highest resistance n lowest pressure in cvs while in respiratory MEDIUM size bronchi gv highest resistance not the smallest ones
  8. during systole
    1.p wave on ecg
    2.alpha wave on jvp
    3.4th heart sound
    4.its not essential part of filling
  9. chronotropic show their effect by affectng NA channels while dromotropic by CA chanels
  10. ventricles r only heart part wich dont get the vagal stimulation
  11. most common in femlaes
    breast disease bilaterly ….fibrocystic diseae
    breast tumour…..fibroadenoma (mostly unilateral)
    malignacy gynecological….endometrial ca
    overall malignancy ….lung ca.
  12. in neonates there is no risk of transfusion reactions as only graft versus host disease happens
  13. cause of death in duchene muscular atrophy is pneumonia
  14. no. 1 cause of dementia is alzehmiers dis n 2nd to is multi infarct
  15. pure mmotor stroke lesion at internal capsule n pure sensory shows at thalamus level
  16. psoriasis n dermatitis herpitiformis both gvs microabcesses
  17. lithocolic acid nt absorbed in ileum n its the only bile salt not absorbed at all n it is carcinogenic
  18. ventricular arrthmias r cause of death in eating disorders
  19. pure mmotor stroke lesion at internal capsule n pure sensory shows at thalamus level
  20. ventricular arrthmias r cause of death in eating disorders
  21. normally no bar body in males so presence of bar body in male phenotype shows klinefelter syndrome while its absence in female phenotype gv us turner syndrome
  22. most common




    autosomal dominant dis…..von wiliibrand
    auto. recessive…..hemochromatosis
    x linked……fragile x syndrome
  23. best indicator for tissue hpoxia is dec mixed venous oxygen content as it dec in hypovolemic n cardiogenic shock n inc in septic shock
  24. rifampicin causes failure of contraceptive measures n can lead to pregnancy
  25. OCP dec AT III causing hypercoagubility….
  26. inflamation terminating factors r
    1.dhort half life of mediators
    2.lipoxins
    3.resolvins wich r omega three fatty acids
  27. obstructive diseases gv respiratory acidosis while restrictve gv resp alkalosis on blood arterial gases
  28. potassium loss is 5mEQ in vomitings while its upto 30 in diarrhea episodes
  29. in barter syndrome there is defect in cl absorption
  30. corneal graft is an example of allograft as well fetus in womb
  31. hyperacute rejection due to preformed antibodies n its type 3 hypersenstivity reaction while acute is of type 4 n 2 while chronic rejection is of type 4…
  32. pinworms n adult ascaries dnt gv eosinophilia all other helimenthic gv eosinophilia on blood exam
  33. for granuloma formation gamma interferon activates epitheloids cells n alpha TNF forms n maintain it
  34. lipofusin is indigestable lipid
  35. superior thyroid branch of externl carotid n inferior thyroid branch of subclavian
  36. nerve supply of bladder is frm S2,3,4 n level of these r L1,2
  37. structures havng THREE muscular layers on histo
    1.stomach fundus
    2.gall bladder
  38. features of filliform papillae
    1.finger like
    2.present on entire surface
    3.havng no taste buds
  39. epiphyseal portion of bone supplied by obturator artey in children n medial circumflex in adults
  40. benzyl penicillin indicated for treatment of rheumatic heart dis n benzathine for prophylaxis
  41. causes of repeated spontaneous abprtions r
    1.progesterone imbalance
    2.phospholipid syndrome
    3.inc vitamin A
    4.chromosome 16 abnormality
  42. in pregnancy mst useful test for diabeties diagnosis is FASTING blood suger level while in other states insulin tolerance is recommended
  43. most common complication of OCP use is thromboemolism n most common after discontinuation is Migraine
  44. 1:satatus posterior superior doesnot lies behind the kidney.2:Inferior epigastric artery doesnot lie lateral to the deep inguinal ring.3:inferior gluteal vessels doesnot pass from the lesser sciatic notch.

    4esophagus never pass through diaphragm at T8 level.

    4:goblet cells are absent in the alveolar duct.

    5: the Hyoid arch never give rise to the part of thyroid cartilage.

    6:gametogenesis doesnot start one year after the birth in males.

    7:at the level os sternal angle thoracic duct never crosses from the right to the left.

    8:greater sciatic foramen never transmits obturator internus muscle.

    9:diaphragm is attached to the body of t10 vertebry.

    10:parkansons is not a hyperkinetic disorder.

    11:trans pyloric plane doesnot cross the celiac artery.

    12:the fornext of the brain is not composed of unmilinated nerve fibers.

    13:the auditory area is not present in the frontal lobe.

    14:mucus connective tissue never contains intrisic lymphatics.

    15:taste buds are never associated with filliform papilla.

    16:a transvers section through the inferior half of the medulla oblongata slightly above the pyramidal decussation never cuts internal crussiante fibers.

    17:sciatic nerver never suppliers gluteus maximus.

    18:in male fetus mesonephric tubules never give rise to appendix testis.

    18:urethra never contributes to the semen.

    19:subecious glands are not specialized glands.

    20mitosis never involves pairing of homologus chromosomes.

    21: herniation of disc at the level of L5 and S1 causes pain below the keen.

    22: paroited gland is not traversed both by facial and auriculo temporal nerves togather.

    23:Mechkel divertuculum is reminent of urechus and it never arises in the mesenteric boarder.

    24:abdominal aorta never lies to the right of cisternachyli.

    25:the crura of diaphragm are not supplied by the phrenic nerve.

    26 lesser omentum never includes short gastric arteries.

    27:infiltration of the lectiferrous tubules by the cancer cells does not fix the mammary gland and never cause its puckering.

    28:the apical group of the axillary lymphnodes never receive lymph from the shoulder joint.

    29:left coronary artery is not the first branch if the arch of aorta.
    30:shoulder joint is not weak superiorly.

    31:musculocutanious nerve has aticular braches.

    31:Biceps brachii is not the powerful pronator of the shoulder joint,and it is never supplied by the median nerve.

    33: superficial inguinal nodes doesnot receive all the lymph from the vigina.

    34:venteral mesogastrium and pluropericardial membrane does not contribute to the formation of diaphram.





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